Exploring the Multifunctional Role of Irisin (FNDC5) in Different Diseases

Exploring the Multifunctional Role of Irisin (FNDC5) in Different Diseases

Jan 12 , 2022

MD Bioproducts

MonELISA® Irisin (FNDC5) ELISA is an assay for the quantitative measurement of irisin in Multispecies (Human, Mouse, Rat, Canine, etc.) serum, plasma, cell culture supernatants, and tissue homogenates.

The Multifunctional Involvement of Irisin (FNDC5)

Irisin is one of the most recently discovered and isolated hormones, derived from mouse skeletal muscle.

Since its original description in 2012 more than 1000 papers have been published analyzing the effect of acute and chronic exercise on the expression of FNDC5 and the release of irisin in both rodents and humans, with rather contradictory results, specifically in humans. 

Irisin is a myokine which may have anti-inflammatory and energy regulatory roles. It is a 12 kDa unglycosylated protein representing the extracellular, N-terminal part of the transmembrane protein FNDC5 and was suggested to be released from contracting muscle.

Irisin is not only present in skeletal muscle, but also in the cardiac muscle, brain, and skin and in smaller amounts in the liver, pancreas, and other tissues. Irisin also plays an important role in central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases, cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer’s disease.

Endocr Rev, Volume 42, Issue 4, August 2021, Pages 436–456, https://doi.org/10.1210/endrev/bnab003

In a study by Zhang et al., it was found that the peripheral administration of irisin in mice reduces blood pressure and is proposed as the link between brain, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and cardiovascular system connected to one another to modulate energy expenditure and cardiovascular functions (Zhang et al., 2015).

Irisin has the potential to ameliorate osteoarthritis (OA) progression by decreasing cartilage degradation and inhibiting inflammation, which could lead to the development of a novel therapeutic target for treating bone and cartilage disorders including osteoarthritis (X. Li et al., 2021).

Animal studies have shown that physical exercise increases irisin levels, while neurological conditions reduce it. Focal cerebral ischemic stroke reduces plasma levels of irisin and FNDC5 expression in the muscles, but intravenous delivery of irisin 30 minutes post-ischemia reduces brain infarct volume, oxidative stress, neuro-inflammation, and neurological deficits. These neuroprotective effects are likely linked to the activation of protein kinase B-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Akt/ERK1/2) pathway (Uysal et al., 2018). Pre-treatment with anti-irisin antibody 1-h before ischemia induction diminishes the neuroprotective effects of 2-week treadmill running (Uysal et al., 2018).

Irisin also plays an important role in central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer’s disease. However, irisin is rarely investigated in multiple sclerosis (MS), a typical inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS, and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a typical model of MS. According to recent studies, the levels of irisin fluctuated with disease progression in MS and EAE. Irisin may be involved in the pathological process of MS/EAE (Zhang et al., 2021).

Studies have confirmed that exercise can increase the expression of Irisin (FNDC5) and promote the secretion of irisin by hippocampal neurons, suggesting that FNDC5/irisin may be related to energy metabolism in brain tissue (Wrann et al., 2013).

Irisin has been proposed as a promising strategy for early diagnosis and treatment of various types of cancers, neurological diseases, and inflammatory conditions. Irisin has been demonstrated to suppress the immune response, too. The importance of irisin is demonstrated by the increase in the number of scientific papers in recent years (Catalano et al., 2021).

Further research studies are required to understand the role of irisin on the body in health and disease.

The Irisin (FNDC5) MonELISA® of MD Bioproducts provides precise and reproducible results. The selection of antibody pairs, careful control of microplate coating, formulation of reagents and protocol design along with stringent quality control procedures compile a complete ELISA kit that provides researchers a rapid and easy to use assay to quantify the novel myokine.

Data/Specifications of Irisin (FNDC5) MonELISA®:

  • Species: Multispecies (Human, Mouse, Rat, Canine, etc.)
  • Sample Type: Serum, Plasma, Cell Culture Supernatants, Tissue Homogenates 
  • Sample Size: 100 μL 
  • Range: 93.75 – 6000 pg/mL 
  • Sensitivity: < 50 pg/mL 
  • Assay Length: 2 hrs 40 min

For more information on this product or to submit your inquiry, please visit the product page:
Irisin (FNDC5) MonELISA®

About MonELISA®

The MonELISA® line of assays is MD Bioproducts’ answer to the demand for flexibility and cost efficiency. The expanding line of products offers users the convenience of purchasing high quality, expertly developed and manufactured kits with uniform assay protocols. The MonELISA® line consists of an accessory kit with common reagents used for all assays. To learn more about MonELISA® click here.